Saturday, June 8, 2013

Koi (Cyprinus carpio carpio) Care


Koi (Cyprinus carpio carpio) are a common sight in ornamental ponds around the world. They represent good fortune and luck in many cultures and are sometimes referred to as living jewels. Koi are the domesticated form of wild Asian carps. The processed was begun in the 1800’s when fish that showed more gold coloring than others were pulled from fisherman’s net and put into ornamental ponds. By the 20th century many of the recognizable color patterns were firmly established.

Koi come in combinations of yellow, orange, red, black and white. One of the most common color patterns is a simple white and red koi. This is called kohaku. A kohaku koi with a single red patch on its head is called a tancho and is highly prized because they resemble the Japanese flag as well as the sacred tancho crane. Some tancho koi sell for over a thousand dollars.

Tancho koi (KoiQuestion @ Flickr)

Minimum tank size

As beautiful as they are, koi are not for the everyday hobbyist. They are large fish that require large tanks or ponds. The average size of a properly cared for adult koi is over a foot (30 cm) long. When given enough room and good food, champion koi will reach almost three feet (91 cm) long. Like goldfish, they are also copious producers of ammonia. A fish of this size and dirtiness cannot be housed in a normal sized tank. I don’t recommend anything smaller than 500 gallons (1,892 L) for a single koi. I know other people would choose to keep them in smaller tanks, but I feel it would not give the fish enough room to reach its full potential.

There are a few different ways to stock a pond. Some koi hobbyists have heavily stocked ponds with professional-grade filtration systems and do large weekly water changes. Some, like myself, chose a more relaxed approach. I only have one fish per 550 gal (2,082 L) of water. This lower stocking level means I don’t have to spend as much on equipment and maintenance. As with a lot of fish, there are a few right ways to stock a pond and most of it depends on how much money and time you want to put into it. But there is one certainty with koi: they need large ponds.

Temperature range

Koi are a hardy pond fish with a wide temperature range. They can survive in water that is almost below freezing or up to tropical temperatures. The important thing is that they experience these transitions gradually. In a large enough pond there is little worry of temperatures changing drastically overnight; this is another reason to keep koi in large volumes of water. The generally accepted range of temperature tolerance for koi is 35F (2C) to 85F (30C). I highly recommend putting a thermometer into the pond because air temperature and water temperatures can differ greatly.

Keeping the water moving helps prevent freezing over (Aquascape Inc)

The depth of a pond plays a large role in temperature control. The deeper the pond is, the cooler it will be in the summer and the warmer it will be in the winter. This may seem counter-intuitive, but the ground acts as insulator against both the cold and the warm. It is this same principle of insulation that keeps caverns the same temperature year-round. The farther north you live, the deeper you will need to dig your pond in order to prevent it from freezing solid in the winter. In the southern US you may only need to go down 2.5 feet (76 cm), but in Ontario, Canada you may have to dig down 5 feet (1.5 m) deep.

Water quality

Just because koi are hardy doesn’t mean that water quality isn’t important. If you want to grow large and beautiful koi, clean water is a must. Just like with tanks, koi need filters and water changes. The filters on ponds are large and scaled to the pond, but just like tanks they will need some kind of regular maintenance, whether it is professionally done or your own labor. I clean the debris out of my filter about three times a year: once when I take the leaf net off in the spring; once in the summer; and once in the fall before I put the leaf net on the pond for the winter.

Because ponds are located outside we get assistance from Mother Nature with water changes. Unless you live in a desert climate, water changes are taken care of for you. When it rains, the fresh water enters the pond and causes it to overflow (most ponds have directed overflow drainage that also protects the fish from getting swept out). When the pond overflows, the older dirty water flows out and is replaced with the incoming fresh water. These pond overflows can also provide a nice area to plant a bog garden.

Bog garden with pitcher plants adjascent to koi pond (mmwm @ Flickr)


Koi, like goldfish, are omnivorous fish. Because they are subject to large temperature changes throughout the year, their diet has to change with the seasons. Fish are cold-blooded which means their ability to digest food is dependent on the outside temperature. In cool weather they cannot handle protein-rich foods; if fed too much it can rot in their digestive tract and kill them. For this reason there are two general types of koi food sold: warm water food and cool water food.

At temperatures above 65F (18C) koi should be fed a staple food, sometimes called summer feed. This is food with a higher protein content, usually above 35%. Koi metabolisms work fast enough at these temperatures to digest proteins. This is when most growth occurs. As the temperature increase, you increase both the volume of food and the frequencies of feeding.

Koi eating floating pellets (Kristen Shoemaker @ Flickr)

Below 65F (18C) koi should be fed a wheat germ-based food. Below 65F (18C) the koi metabolism slows and cannot handle high proteins, but until the water reaches 50F (10C) koi still need to be fed. This high-carb food is easy to digest and helps them gather enough energy for winter hibernation. As the temperature decreases you lower the amount and frequency of feedings until you are only feeding once every couple of days. Below 50F (10C) your koi should not be fed. They are in hibernation. If the temperature warms slightly in the winter, they will graze on algae and detritus in the pond. 

I have included below the temperature feeding schedule I use for my koi. There is some debate about the exact temperatures among koi hobbyists but this is what has worked for me.

Above 86
Feed cautiously as adult koi metabolism can shut down in temperatures approaching 90F
70 – 86
Every day. As much as they can eat in about 10 minutes. Feed 3 – 4 times a day.
69 – 65
Every day, twice a day with a staple food.
64 – 61
Every day, once a day (mix of wheat germ and staple). Midday feedings are best.
60 – 55
Every 3 to 4 days (Wheat germ base)
54 – 50
Feed once a week with presoaked if koi are moving around (Wheat germ base)
Below 50
Do not feed!


This is more of personal preference than koi preference. Koi thrive in bare-bottomed ponds, gravel-bottomed ponds, and mud-bottomed ponds. Bare-bottom ponds are easier to keep clean. Most serious koi hobbyists use these types of ponds because it enables them to keep the water crystal clear to grow massive koi. Some Japanese water gardens use mud bottom ponds because that is traditionally how koi were kept. Koi breeders who breed the traditional way use mud bottom ponds as spawning sites. The downside to mud-bottom ponds is that koi like to root around in the substrate, and the stirred-up mud obscures your view of these gorgeous fish. I prefer a light layer of large gravel over the pond liner as it produces a natural look without the cloudiness of mud.

Tank mates

Koi, like most carps and minnows, are social fish. They prefer the company of their own kind but also do well with goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus), golden tench (Tinca tinca), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and golden orfe (Leuciscus idus). Sturgeon (Acipenseridae) do not make good pond-mates for koi because they are shy and require a carnivore-based diet. Koi should not be housed with fish that will fit in their mouth because they can and will eat the smaller fish. While guppies (Poecilia reticulata) would look pretty in with your koi, they will likely become snacks.

Juvenile blue and golden orfe (Pete Turnbull @ Flickr)


Koi, like goldfish, are notorious for eating plants in ponds. Most people don’t keep floating or submerged plants in koi ponds for this reason. However, marginal plants, bog filters, and waterfall filters are very popular. Not only do they add an aesthetic beauty but they also help keep the water clean.

Marginal plants are placed on the edge of the pond so that just the roots are in the water. There are two types of marginal plants: hardy and tropical. Hardy marginals can survive through the winter in most places but tropical marginals cannot (unless you live in a semi-tropical climate). Most of these plants need a decent amount of sun, so in my mostly shaded pond I can only grow a few marginals. I maintain a number of yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus). Tall marginals like cattails (Typha spp) and arrowheads (Sagittaria spp) should be placed on the far side of the pond so as not to obstruct your view. Low-growing marginals like marsh marigolds (Caltha palustris) should be planted on the side of the pond where you will be viewing the pond most times.

Marginal plants can also be put into a bog filter. This is a separate area of the pond that the koi cannot reach. It will only have about 6 inches of water which enables the roots to stay wet. This water comes from the koi pond filled with nutrients for the plants. The plants remove the nutrients generated by the fish and the cleaned water is returned to the pond. Some people who have koi that even eat the roots find this a wonderful way to introduce plants into the system without having to worry about them becoming a koi snack.

Water hyacinth in waterfall return (source unknown)

Another way koi-keepers can sneak plants into a koi pond is with a waterfall filter. The water return at the top of the waterfall of a koi pond is often an open-top barrel. Some people (including myself) use this space to grow plants. You can use floating plants like water hyacinth or marginal plants, and I’ve even seen people grow veggies hydroponically there.

Interesting facts

Koi are renowned for their longevity. The average lifespan of a properly cared for koi is between 20 and 35 years, but there have been some special cases that long surpassed that average. In a small, creek-fed pond in Gifu, Japan there were six fish that far surpassed that average. Hanako, a scarlet koi, was the oldest of the lot. She was hatched in 1751. To put that in historical perspective she hatched 25 years before the Declaration of Independence was signed. This was verified by Prof. Masayoshi Hiro, D.Sc., Laboratory of Domestic Science, Nagoya Women's College. She removed a scale from Hanako’s body and counted the growth rings under a microscope, much as you would count the growth rings of a tree. In 1966 when the interview with Hanako’s owner was aired on radio, the other koi in the pond were 170, 155, 151, and 141. Unfortunately Hanako is no longer alive today. She died July 17, 1977 and was 226 when she died.

Hanako and her keeper (

All over the world, koi symbolize luck and fortune, but most people don’t know the reason why. An old Chinese legends hold that long ago the supreme god of the heavens called the Yellow Emperor became displease with the humans for their evil ways. He ordered the rain god to flood the earth to destroy the humans. Kun, the Yellow Emperor’s grandson was distraught by the destruction and pleaded with his grandfather to spare the humans. The Yellow Emperor did not relent, so Kun stole some “magic mud” from his grandfather’s treasure. Kun sprinkled this mud and as it hit the water turned into land where the humans could take refuge. Furious at his grandson, the Yellow Emperor sent the fire god to kill Kun who tried to disguise himself as a white horse, but the fire god saw through it and struck Kun down.

After many years of continued flooding a golden dragon named Yu emerged from the white horse that was once Kun. He flew to the heavens to plead with his great-grandfather to stop the flood. This time his perseverance paid off, and the Yellow Emperor told Yu to take the magic mud and make land again. Yu easily carved a river through the soft mud, but when he came to rocky cliffs he had to greatly increase his effort to dig out a gorge. In doing so he created huge waterfalls hundreds of feet high. He declared the waterfalls sacred to dragons. The river eventually became known as the Yellow River and those 12-mile long gorges located in China’s Shanxi province became known as Dragon’s Gate. Every spring thousands of koi swim up the Yellow River and if they have the skill and perseverance of a dragon to climb the falls they become dragons themselves. Because of this legend, koi are symbols of hard work, patience, and skill which are all things needed to have good fortune in life.

Taking care of koi isn’t always an easy task, but just like Yu and the Dragon’s Gate waterfalls persevering through the hardships can make the final outcome that much more beautiful.

Works referenced

"Frequently asked water gardening questions." Crystal Creek Pond Supply LLC. Updated: 8 May 2013. Retrieved: 8 June 2013. 

"Koi Encyclopedia." Pan Intercorp. Updated: 8 June 2013. Retrieved: 8 June 2013.

"Legend of Dragon's Gate." Updated: 8 November 2010. Retrieved: 7 June 2013.

"The Story of Hanako." Updated: 29 January 2013. Retrieved: 8 June 2013. 

"Temperature." Koi Club of San Diego. Updated: 7 June 2013. Retrieved: 8 June 2013.

**Disclaimer** Since there is little to no scientific research about fishkeeping published, much of the hobby today is opinion, but they are opinions given by keepers and breeders who have been doing this longer than some of us have been alive. Temperature ranges and adult sizes are not opinion. They have been scientifically documented.

Saturday, June 1, 2013

My Tanks: Special Update

The Story of Mr. Waddles

Normally I wouldn’t do an update this close together, but this isn’t a regular update. This is a special fish that I’ve welcomed into my fishy family: Mr. Waddles. He came to me from a friend on my home fishkeeping forum, and he has a troubled past.

Mr. Waddles shared a 29 gal tank with other goldfish of various ages, most won at fairs. The owners of this tank didn’t take care of it at all. Instead of finding out why some of their fish would die after a couple of months, they would just buy a replacement. This happened for years until they just stopped replacing the fish. Mr. Waddles was the last one they put in there and the last one left standing.

Enter Jes, a fishkeeper who with a heart of gold and a love of kids. The family who owned Mr. Waddles had a young girl who became very attached to him. Fearing that he would die and their daughter would be heartbroken, the family asked their friend, Jes, to help them get the tank back in shape. She reluctantly agreed but had no clue how bad it was. Knowing that I keep and love goldfish, she contacted me before even seeing the tank to ask for goldfish care tips.

I tried to prepare her for how bad that filter and tank could be, but it shocked even me. Jes being a bit of a shutterbug snapped some pictures of the tank before she cleaned it just to prove how bad it was. There was slimy algae on everything and the substrate was filled with crap (literally). She tested the water, and the nitrate and phosphate readings were off the charts. Her mission was to teach the young girl just how to care for her beloved fishy while cleaning up his current tank. On top of scrubbing the walls of algae and cleaning the filter of gunk, Jes also siphoned the gravel like mad and removed handfuls of it. She said it was at least 4 inches deep and a disgusting nitrate factory.

Mr. Waddles' tank at his first home (Jes's photo)

Jes continued this routine for a couple of months. Once a week she would head to Mr Waddles’ family’s house, teach the young girl about fish, and help her clean the tank. But as young children can, the little girl lost interest in Mr. Waddles and the tank. This put Jes in a bind as she didn’t have room to take Waddles and didn’t want to leave him with a family who was known to be terrible at fishkeeping.

My heart melted for this adorable little oranda. I offered to take Mr. Waddles if Jes and his former family would be willing to ship him. Jes wanted to make sure the young girl knew that rehoming a fish isn’t something to be done lightly. Fish aren’t just toys you can give away when you are tired of playing with them. Eventually she agreed to give him away, and Jes and I began to make arrangements.

Jes started to do 20% daily changes on Waddles’ tank to give him the best possible water to travel in. She also contacted her wonderful local pet store who agreed to pack him for shipping. This was Jes’s largest worry which was greatly assuaged by that awesome store. Less than a week before he was due to be shipped, Jes decided to bring Waddles to her house to make daily water changes much easier. She dug out an old 20 gal and set him up in a temporary position in her bedroom, much to the chagrin of her husband.

Jes was able to get better photos of him at her house. (Jes's photo)

As even the most well-thought-out plans go, a wrench can still make its way into them. The day Jes was to ship Waddles her children came down with the stomach flu. She couldn’t leave to ship him. The following week, I couldn’t receive him because I was going away that weekend to watch my boyfriend graduate university. I didn’t want to leave him alone just a few short days after getting him. What was supposed to be a few night’s stay at Jes’s house turned into a couple weeks.

Last week, the planets aligned and Jes shipped him without incident to my house! Because of his troubled past I have him in strict quarantine for a month. If and only if everything looks spotless at the end of that month, he will join my three other goldfish in my 55 gal. Waddles is about a year old but is already stunted from his poor care. He is about the same size as my other four, and while I expect him to grow I don’t expect him to get as large as an oranda should.

Waddles on day one (23 May). He was pretty skinny and very shy.

Waddles after nine days (1 June). He is steadily gaining weight and cuteness.

Waddles has come a long way from his cramped, dirty home. I thank Jes for giving me the opportunity to be part of this courageous story and for all the hard work she put into getting him healthy. I hope that I can send Jes and Waddles’ former family a picture of him doubled in size in a couple of years. And yes, his name is going to stay.

Saturday, May 25, 2013

Summer Tub Update: May

It has been almost a month since I began my summer tub experiment. It's in full swing now. I added the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) roughly two weeks after I started it. I put in roughly 15 fish, most of them females. They aren’t very visible, but I have seen them a couple of times when I checked on the pond. Unless I see some overcrowding, I’ll wait until the end of the summer to remove some and really take a count of how many I have in there.

Two females and a male mosquitofish

The plants took off after I added the fish. The frogbit has taken over, and I recently removed a couple of handfuls. The water lettuce hasn’t done as well, but that could be because the frogbit is chocking it out. Earlier in May my iris flowered, and the potted grasses are also doing well. 

The iris that flowered on 10 May 2013

Since my koi pond is simply too shaded for most plants, I have never been able to have lilies. This tub with its 5 hours of sun is my best chance to grow them. A week ago I bought a lily plant from Lowes and decided to give it a try in the tub. It has been doing great! No flowers yet, but it sprouted and has broken the surface. I’m really hoping to get a flower or two from it later this summer.

The lily in the middle with dwarf water lettuce in the foreground.

Thus far I feel this is going very well. Because of the cool spring we had I don't feel I could have added tropicals until at least May 15. It's a good thing I wasn't planning on them this year. Although I can't see the mosquitofish that well, I want something that I know will survive on my first try rather than something I will have to worry about while I get the basics down.

Full tub shot!

Saturday, May 18, 2013

My Tanks: 18 May Update

The times between my updates keep stretching out because my tanks are going through fewer and fewer changes. Once every couple of months is more than enough to cover everything. That said, I only have a few things to report this week.

My comminuty tank got some new residents in the form of Amano shrimp (Caridina multidentata). The gourami did pick off a few, but the remaining three are hard at work keeping down the algae. I have a bit of staghorn algae in the tank, and they have been very diligent in eating it. Amano shrimp are much larger than cherry shrimp and do just fine with the fish.

My new amano shrimp.

I have also added a new plant: Hygrophilia sp tiger. It is another stem plant, but it is one of the few low-light stem plants. It's in a temporary position right now, but during the summer I'm going to put a canister on the community tank. Then the hygro can be moved to where I want it. Thanks to the sharp eye of a friend, I've also realized I have a fourth species of crypt in my tank. He pointed out that I have a C. pontederiifolia as well as the C. spiralis, C. undulata, and C. wendtii. I'm guessing it came as an extra with my last order of crypts from

You can see the C. pontederiifolia to the right of the rock in the center.
The hygro is in the back left. And there is a bonus amano.

The shrimp tank underwent the most changes. Because my starting population was so low, I ordered 10 sakura red shrimp from They arrive in good condition and acclimated well, but I had a mass die-off like 4 days after they went into the tank. I attribute it to first-time shrimping mistakes which could have been anything from not feeding enough, feeding too much, an immature tank, pH too high. I wasn't really sure, but either way only about 3 of the original 10 are still alive. I was about to give up on shrimps when a female became berried, but she died shortly after that. I put her body in a net over the filter in an attempt to hatch her eggs like I'd read online. And it actually worked! I was able to hatch about five eggs.

As for cosmetic changes in the tank, I have also made some large ones. I added two large pieces of driftwood as well as some X-mas moss and java moss. I removed the bacopa because I just didn't like the look of it. I also added some floating plants such as frogbit and dwarf water lettuce. I currently have one berried female and a few saddled ones.

Current state of the shrimp tank. I also added a feeding dish to the tank.

There aren't nearly as many updates as I would like with the pond because we've had a very cold spring. We even had a frost earlier this week. The plants are just flowering now. I added some water hyacinth to the pond, but it's not in top shape due to the cold weather.

Yellow iris and the koi

Stout blue-eyed grass

Up close on the iris and koi

The other major change in my fish tanks is a new goldfish!!! Mid April I bought a ranchu from, and I'm in love with this little girl! She's slightly larger than my ryukin and oranda, but they are catching up fast. I have named her Ponyo, but my mother calls her Marlyn because she has a black dot on her check. She took to hand feeding extremely well, and fits in with the group perfectly. I am so happy to have her!!

Look at that cute face!!!

Like three peas in a pod.

The last and rather small (right now) change in the goldfish tank was the addition of six apple snails. A friend had too many in his tank and was giving away babies. I plopped them in while distracting the goldfish, but Ponyo was too quick and completely ate one, spitting out the operculum. So the apple snails are in a breeder box getting daily feedings so they grow large enough not to be goldfish food. 

My new snails with a cameo from Burbbles.

There will be something special in the next update! :3

Saturday, May 11, 2013

The Beauty in your Backyard

North American Native Fishkeeping

The first time I saw picture of a darter was in my ichthyology class, second semester of my junior year. We’d just finished covering marine fishes of the eastern US and were starting on the freshwater fishes. I couldn’t believe my eyes. I never knew there were such beautiful fish right outside my door. The first time I saw a darter in the flesh, I was forever entranced.

Redfin darter Etheostoma whipplei I caught while in Arkansas

When most people think of North American fishes, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are the first things to come to mind. These large gamefish are the ones that are seen and talked about the most, so it is no wonder that is where most minds go first. But there is so much more in our waterways than just these well-known fish. Surprisingly a lot of these are pretty easy to keep in a tank. They don’t need heaters like tropical fishes and some can be kept in ponds year-round.

In the US we have a lot of members of the cyprinid family—minnows—that are remarkably easy to care for. They are just like the barbs and rasbora of Asia. These minnows are subdivided into dace, shiners, and chubs. They are shoaling and prefer groups of six or more. North American minnows do best in 30+ gal (113 L) tanks and for the most part are just fine with other species of minnows. My favorites are mountain redbelly dace (Chrosomus oreas), saffron shiner (Notropis rubricroceus), and turquoise shiner (Cyprinella monacha), but these are just the ones I have in my backyard. 

Mountain redbelly dace (Chris Crippen @

For those that like the cute appeal of the corydoras and other tropical catfishes, there are also cute catfish in the streams of North America: the madtoms (Noturus spp). They have the typical catfish look but stay small enough for a 30 + gal (113 L) tank. Some species are spotted or speckled with a bit of color, but their most entertaining qualities are their catfish antics and their adorable whiskered faces peeking out of rock caves.  

Tadpole madtom Noturus gyrinus (Ohio DNS)

Darters (Etheostoma spp) and (Percina spp) are the gems of North America. Hands down I believe they are the most stunning fishes we have here. They have reds, blues, greens, and yellows to match some of the most beautiful tropical fishes. But they have a catch: darters come from cool, flowing water. You have to provide that if you keep them in an aquarium. This often includes powerheads or simply a river manifold. Darters are also territorial, so make sure to provide enough hiding spaces for them in a tank. In the wild, they can just swim down to the next riffle; they don’t have that luxury in a tank. I have seen a few tutorials for how to set up a darter-specific tank like this one from the North American Native Fishes Association (NANFA). Or you could just use a setup typical of hillstream loaches detailed here at Loaches Online. 

Tangerine darter Percina aurantiaca (

When most people think sunfish, they think about bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) or crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). These large cichlid-like fish are only a few of the centracidae family found in the US. While not all of them are beautiful, there are a few worth pointing out. The pygmy sunfishes (Elassoma spp) are certainly some of the most stunning. They are the smallest fishes detailed today in this article; they can be kept in tanks as small as 10 gal (37 L). Pygmy sunfishes are also the most delicate and can prove difficult to feed. They are very shy and need a heavily planted tank with things like anarcharis, hornwort, and duckweed. They were once described to me as “not for the fishkeeper who needs to see their fish every day.” Unlike with most of these fish, you probably won’t be able to find pygmy sunfish in your backyard. They are generally restricted to coastal areas of the eastern US. 

Pygmy sunfish Elassoma gilberti male (Erica Wieser @

For those that like to see their fish a little more often, there are other more visible sunfish. The banded sunfish (Enneacanthus obesus) and bluespot sunfish (Enneacanthus gloriosus) are a good choice for a medium sized tank. With colors and temperament matching the South American cichlids, they make an excellent fish for a 30 gal (113 L) to 70 gal (265 L) native tank. Unlike the darters and minnows, they prefer the pools to the faster water.

Banded sunfish (Tennessee Aquarium)

Those with a much larger tank might enjoy the some of the most brightly colored Lepomis spp species like the long-eared sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus). These fishes will need a 100+ gal (378 L) tank as they get large and are territorial much like the larger South American cichlids. These fishes also make interesting alternatives to goldfish and koi in a pond. In clear water their beautiful colors can easily be seen, especially during spawning.

Longear sunfish (Brandon Brown @ NANFA)

The North American fish lineup also includes some livebearers and killifish. While these aren’t the most colorful, they are still interesting to keep in aquariums nonetheless. Some of the best looking are the flagfish (Jordanella floridae), northern studfish (Fundulus catenatus), and the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna).

Northern Studfish (Stan Sung @

This isn't intended to be a comprehensive guide to North American natives. I just want to open your eyes with this article and let you know there are lots of choices out there. If you have a further interest in these fishes, I highly recommend joining the NANFA forum. I am aware there is a bias in the listings of fish here: they are almost all from the eastern US, but that is where I live. I am most familiar with the fish in my backyard. I encourage you to get familiar with the fish in your backyard no matter where you live. You never know what little beauties you may find!

Works Referenced

"BTDarters." Updated: 26 Jan 2013. Retrieved: 11 May 2013.

"Compatibility and Feeding of North American Native Fishes in Aquaria." Jonah's Aquarium. Updated: 11 May 2008. Retrieved: 11 May 2013. 

"North American Native Fishes: Captive Care." Zimmerman's Fish. Updated: 15 April 2013. Retrieved: 11 May 2013.

Sung, Stan. 2011. "Forest Gems: Fishes of the Streams of the Deep South." Retrieved: 11 May 2013.